A new point on ECG: point L as identifier of rapid and slow ejection phases boundary

Original research

A new point on ECG: point L as identifier of rapid and slow ejection phases boundary

Sergey M. Rudenko 1*

1 Russian New University, 105005, Russia, Moscow, 22 Radio St.

* Corresponding author:
   +7 (8634) 31-24-03
  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Aims

Description of rapid and slow ejection phases in the cardiac cycle.

Materials and methods

The theory of cardiac cycle phase analysis and mathematical equations of hemodynamics were used in the paper. The equations were employed to verify the balance of the phase-related diastolic and systolic blood volumes reliant on phase durations, and the identification of boundaries of the cardiac cycle phases on the ECG. Further, synchronous ECG & RHEO recording was used. Aortic blood filling was studied in the stated phases.

Results

The location of boundaries of rapid and slow ejection phases is traced. The boundaries did not have a precise definition before. Thus, a new symbol, the L point, on the ECG has been introduced to identify the boundaries of phases S-L, L-j.

Conclusion

Previously the location of point j on the ECG was impossible to identify. It was considered as a hypothermic wave on the ECG that could not always be traced. Point j was defined as the j (Osborn) wave. Thereby the location of boundaries of rapid and slow ejection phases, where volumetric parameters were equal to the stroke volume, was not accurately identified. The research enabled detecting the ECG recording criteria of the rapid and slow ejection phases. The results of the present research are published for the first time.

Imprint

Sergey M. Rudenko. A new point on ECG: point L as identifier of rapid and slow ejection phases boundary; No.2; May 2013; p.30-39; DOI: 10.12710/cardiometry.2013.2.3039 Available from: http://www.cardiometry.net/issues/no2-may-2013/new-point-on-ecg

Keywords

CARDIOMETRY’s Library

The books presented further herein are published under the auspices of “The Fund of Outstanding Scientific Discoveries”. The books offer detailed descriptions of theory and practice of the latest scientific discoveries in the field of Physiology and Medicine, which have found a wide application and which make human life better.
Published in 2020. Cardiometry. Fundamentals of Theory and Practice
ISBN 978-5-86746-108-4
A detailed description of the theory is given and the most important criteria for cardiometric diagnostics are presented herein.

Published in 2020. The performance of the cardiovascular system in athletes. Cardiometric characteristics of physical capabilities in athletes’ performance before their sporting activities, in their sporting activities and upon ceasing them.
ISBN 978-5-86746-123-8
This is the first book defining the healthy heart. You can find everything to understand your own physical capabilities.

Published in 2007. Theoretical Principles of Heart Cycle Phase Analysis
ISBN 978-5-86746-125-4 (Russian version)
ISBN 978-3-937909-57-8 (English version)
The book deals with a new fundamental science: cardiometry, which becomes very popular due to its practical applicability.

Published in 2017. Leaflet: The one and only case in history of modern civilization: creating CARDIOMETRY, a new fundamental science. It’s a popular science essay to outline the discovery and the discoverers thereof.

Published in 2019. The paper by Russian mathematicians S.Chefranov and A.Chefranov is devoted to the new analytical solution of the 3D Navier-Stokes equation for compressible medium to clarify the sixth Millennium Prize problem.

Published in 2011. High-accuracy non-invasive measuring of main hemodynamics parameters.
ISBN 978-3-8465-1951-6
The book deals with some new approaches to solutions concerning introduction of a new point on ECG: it’s point L.

Published in 2012. The Cardiovascular System. Physiology, Diagnostics and Clinical Implications.
ISBN 978-953-51-0534-3
You can find four chapters written by the Cardiometry theory originators. One of the chapters treats a problem of measuring AP with a blood pressure cuff and describes the history of the fundamental scientific discovery.

Published in 2016. The Siege of Leningrad. Discoveries in Biology and Medicine.
ISBN 978-5-86746-126-2
The book presents unique data on Physiology in human individuals recorded under the siege of Leningrad during the World War II 1941-1945.

Released in 2004
Certificate of Discovery Registration issued in 1976
Periodic system of human organism states.
ISBN 5-86766-043-6
The periodic system table offers in detail the relevant characteristics of all the five adaptational reactions in a human organism: stress, reaction of training, reactions of calm and elevated activation and over-activation.

Published in 2006. Activation Therapy.
ISBN 5-7507-0179-4
The book provides for a detailed description of all the five adaptational reactions in a human organism: stress, reaction of training, reactions of calm and elevated activation and over-activation. It’s a New Age in health care. The only way to achieve effectiveness in medical treatment is to use the knowledge of the adaptational reactions in a human organism.
Medical equipment designed on the basis of the above mentioned fundamental discoveries
Diagnostics equipment for cardiology: PC-assisted device CARDIOCODE, designed and developed on the basis of the cardiometric technology. It’s an exclusive device capable of delivering unique data within 1 minute for the most accurate cardiovascular system diagnostics.

Unique effective pain- relief and treatment with the use of low-intensity electromagnetic field having some specific ECG wave frequencies: device Ezh-2 (Energy of Life -2). It’s the most efficient and powerful instrument for improvement of the immune system performance. Upon completion of five therapy sessions, the immune system demonstrates a three- or four-fold higher level in its performance.

VIDEO ABOUT CARDIOMETRY

Founders of a new fundamental science: Cardiometry

www.vzernov.com

www.mrudenko.com

www.ovoronova.com

OUR PARTNERS

Russian New University


Your online partner for English language editing, proofreading, medical writing, formatting, design & development and publication support services


Online ECG / Telemetry Certification Course

Teach you everything you need to interpret arrhythmia and administer a 12-lead EKG


Cardiocode - unique diagnostics of the heart