Webinar 2. Laws of Cardiometry

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Webinar 2. Laws of Cardiometry



The CARDIOMETRY belongs to the natural sciences: it is based on the laws of physics which are fundamental for all natural science systems.

The CARDIOMETRY rests on 5 basic laws describing the performance of the cardiovascular system.

The knowledge of these laws is important for practice: it is a useful tool for making diagnosis by analysis for establishing cause-effect relationships.

Law 1
The blood flow in the heart and the blood vessels is organized under the conditions of elevated fluidity (which is said to be the third mode of flow to differ from the laminar or turbulent mode), and the elevated fluidity mode exhibits low friction due to a specific flow pattern formed by alternating rings of blood elements and plasma.


1) The entire anatomy design of the circulatory system is dedicated to the formation and the maintenance of the above specific flow mode;

2) Every cardiac cycle consists of ten phases, and each of the phases undertakes its own predetermined function of providing and maintaining the proper hemodynamics;

3) The quality of each function depends on amplitude and intensity of contractions of the respective muscles within the circulatory system;

4) There is a compensatory mechanism of the circulatory system muscle contractility that is responsible for maintaining hemodynamic parameters within their norms. The compensatory mechanism operates as follows: if any muscle group in the circulatory system shows a decreased contractile function, the other one within the system will automatically increase their contractile activity to compensate the loss of contractility.

Law 2
The SA and the AV nodes of the heart plus the aorta baroreceptors (AB) are neural centers which generate nervous impulses (action potentials) as soon as blood pressure at the said baroreceptors reaches the predetermined level.


The pressure applied to the baroreceptor is the only factor initiating generation of the nervous impulse (action potential) and activating the mechanism of contractile function of the muscles in the circulatory system.

Law 3
The SA node is responsible for closing of atrioventricular valves.


If the atrioventricular valves cannot complete their closing procedure at the end of the atrial systole phase in each cardiac cycle, the residual pressure in the atrium will act on the SA node and necessarily initiate another atrial contraction that will be reflected as the second P wave on ECG (which is the cause of atrial arrhythmia).

Law 4
The AV node controls three mechanisms responsible for the formation of the specific blood flow pattern. These mechanisms are as follows:

1) Regulation of diastolic pressure in the aorta (carotid artery);

2) Generation of vortex-type flows of blood before opening of aortic valve (carotid artery valve);

3) Opening of the aortic valve (carotid artery valve).


1) The generation of the nervous impulse by the AV node in each cardiac cycle occurs three times that is found on an ECG as the QRS-complex, the S-L and the L-j phase;

2) Under heavy physical loading, nervous impulses of this sort can be generated up to seven times.

Law 5
The ABs (the carotid artery baroreceptors) perform the function of maintaining the produced blood flow pattern and driving blood via the blood vessels under the conditions of elevated fluidity.


1) Amplitude of the expansion of the aorta (carotid artery) depends on a value of the pressure applied to the ABs that is reflected as amplitude of the T-wave on ECG;

2) Amplitude of the aorta expansion regulates the blood flow resistance.

Laws of Cardiometry: their manifestation & markers on ECG.


Our book in WoS™ Core Collection

We are glad to inform you that the book "Theoretical principles of heart cycle phase analysis" written by researchers from Russian New University has been accepted and indexed in The Book Citation Index in Web of Science™ Core Collection


Founders of a new fundamental science: Cardiometry





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